Python About Modules

Excuting modules as scripts

if __name__ == "__main__":
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import sys
fib(int(sys.argv[1]))

If a module file contain the code above. The code that parses the command line only runs if the module is executed as the “main” file.

The Module Search Path

When a module is imported, the interpreter first searches for a built-in module with that name. If not found, it then searches for a file named that in a list of directories given by the variable sys.path.

  • The directory containg the input script (or the current directory when no file is specified).
  • PYTHONPATH (a list of directory names, with the same syntax as the shell variable PATH).
  • The installation-dependent default.

“Compiled” Python files

To speed up loading modules, Python caches the compiled version of each module in the __pycache__ directory under the name module.version.pyc, where the version encodes the format of the compiled file; it generally contains the Python version number. e.g.: in CPython release 3.3 the compiled version of spam.py would be cached as __pycache__/spam.cpython-33.pyc.

tips:

  • You can use -O or -OO switches on the Python command to reduce the of a compiled module.
  • A program doesn’t run any faster when it is read from a .pyc or .pyo file than when if is read from a .py file; That’s faster about .pyc or .pyo files is the speed with they are loaded.
  • The module compileall can create .pyc files (or .pyo files when -O is used) for all modules in a directory.